five early symptoms that indicate a drinker already is an alcohol abuser or is at risk:
1. Repeatedly drinking more than self-set limits.
2. Having a persistent desire to quit or cut down.
3. Drinking and driving.
4. Spending too much time drinking.
5. Having hangovers or a sleep disorder.
Knowing the Signs
several characteristics that can help people recognize themselves as high-functioning alcoholics:
They have trouble controlling their intake even after deciding that they will drink no more alcohol than a given amount.
They find themselves thinking obsessively about drinking . when and where and with whom they will drink next.
When they drink, they behave in ways that are uncharacteristic of their sober self.
They experience blackouts, unable to remember what took place during a drinking bout.
It's not the number of drinks that defines an alcoholic,. It's what happens to you when you're drinking.
They also tend to hide their excessive consumption by drinking alone or sneaking alcohol before or after a social event, and disguising or excusing the odor of alcohol on their breath.
High-functioning alcoholics are highly skilled at leading double lives
high-functioning alcoholics are able to maintain respectable, even high-profile lives, usually with a home, family, job and friends. That balancing act continues until something dreadful happens that reveals the truth — to themselves or to others — and forces the person to enter a treatment program or lose everything that means anything.
estimates that as many as half of all alcoholics are high-functioning types. The abuse can go on for decades until and unless some alcohol-related crisis occurs, like being arrested for drunken driving, exposed for having made unwanted sexual advances or being asked for a divorce when their spouses can no longer tolerate the abusive drinking.
Hillbrow with its corruption and violence, slum landlords, crooked police, strip-joints and night clubs,
drug-lords, pimps, brothels and massage parlours, prostitution, sex buyers, and overall decadence have
become the burial grounds for our children.
Some of our children died of Wellconal (pinks) OD, others from Heroin or more violently from crack cocaine rocks OD's.
Many deaths were as the result of continued physical and drug abuse - the girls died of septicemia, thrombosis, heart failure, pneumonia, malnutrition, AIDS. As the victims of sexual perversions many girls were raped, mutilated and murdered. With their miserable lives becoming unbearable -
some of our heartbroken children chose the only way out left for them, they would cop out by committing suicide.
There is always a need for intoxication:
China has opium, Islam has hashish, the West has woman.
According to federal government studies, 15 million Americans are addicted to alcohol, 12 million to other drugs.
The marketplace presents an ever-changing array of chemicals people can abuse.
Yet alcoholism is and always has been the No. 1 problem people seek treatment for.
In the early 80's, Valium was the second most abused drug, then cocaine surpassed it. Now opiates such as Vicodin, Percoset and OxyContin, usually legally prescribed, are in second place.
Recovery is also about the spirit, about dealing with that hole in the soul.
was born with what I like to call a hole in my soul.. . .A pain that came from the reality that I just wasn't good enough.
That I wasn't deserving enough. That you weren't paying attention to me all the time. That maybe you didn't like me enough.
is true for those who are genetically predisposed. We know from twin and family studies that about 50 percent of a person's vulnerability to addiction is genetic.
millions of addicts around the world have recovered without the help of medication.
the fact is that today 12-step treatment is still the best treatment there is
Ecstasy, popular among teenagers and young adults who attend rave parties, leads to the destruction of neurons in the brain.
Repeated users of the drug develop symptoms resembling those of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases
- art that gets printed on LSD tabs.
This site showcases blotter art of everything from album covers to cartoon characters. Even Alice in Wonderland has her own tab.
Addiction is one of the nation's biggest public health problems, costing $524 billion (including lost wages and costs to the public health care and criminal justice systems) each year.
The majority of the estimated 20 million alcoholics and drug addicts in America (and millions more compulsive gamblers, overeaters and sex addicts,
if you accept an expanded understanding of addiction) never get help.
Those who do often relapse repeatedly, sometimes returning to treatment centers 5, 10 or 15 times (if they don't die first).
And many of those who"recover simply trade one addiction for another addicts call this dance switching seats on the Titanic.
dealers peddling heroin that they were calling "drop dead," "lethal injection," and "killer instinct" spread,
Like the regulars at Harry Hope's saloon in The Iceman Cometh, she'd reached the late stage of alcoholism where no matter how much she drank, she couldn't get drunk anymore.
addiction whether to alcohol, to drugs or even to behaviors like gambling appears to be a complicated disorder affecting brain processes
responsible for motivation, decision making, pleasure seeking,
inhibitory control and the way we learn and consolidate information and experiences.
the Fentanyl that has killed more than 60 heroin users in the Chicago area.
Copyright Columbia Pictures, Easy Rider had an enromous influence on an
juvenile delinquent addict dreaming of growing up becoming an outlaw.
you're told that addiction is a disease that wants you dead, and it will go after you unless you use the tools you learn in the program
Virtually everyone who takes opioids will become physically dependent on them, which means that withdrawal symptoms like nausea and sweats can occur if usage ends abruptly. But tapering off gradually allows most people to avoid those symptoms, and physical dependence is not the same thing as addiction. Addiction — which is defined by cravings, loss of control and a psychological compulsion to take a drug even when it is harmful — occurs in patients with a predisposition (biological or otherwise) to become addicted. At the very least, these include just below 10 percent of Americans, the number estimated by the United States Department of Health and Human Services to have active substance-abuse problems. Even a predisposition to addiction, however, doesn’t mean a patient will become addicted to opioids.
Popular slang for this drug of course includes crystal, but more commonly tina -- a corruption of the word sixteen, based on the concept of one sixteenth of an ounce. When you see Craigslist classified ads from people searching for a "party with Tina," you can rest assured they're willing to spend anywhere from three to five dollars.
OxyContin gave them better relief than they ever had before. But Purdue misrepresented the drug’s potential for abuse. Last month, the company and three of its executives pleaded guilty to federal charges that they misled doctors and patients. The company agreed to pay $600 million in fines; and the executives, a total of $34.5 million. The pill’s time-release mechanism turned out to be easily circumvented by crushing the pill and snorting or injecting the resulting powder. By the late 1990s, OxyContin abuse was devastating small towns throughout Appalachia and rural New England. Pharmaceuticals, mainly opioids, are still widely abused — now more so than any illegal drug except marijuana. In 2005, according to the government’s National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 6.4 million Americans, many of them teenagers, had abused pharmaceuticals recently. Most got the drug from friends or family — often, in the case of teenagers, from their parents' medicine cabinets.
But treating addicts requires extra care.
Ed says - my mother's on Methadone, my father is incarcerated in prison, I graduated from highschool and I grew up in a barn without electric and water.
Ed's left index finger has Gangrene because he hit an artery while injecting Heroin into his arm.
Dont Shoot Dope
OxyContin is a synthetic, time-released pill similar to morphine, and its benefits have been widely praised by terminal cancer patients and others with severe and intractable pain.
But the pills contain large amounts of the pure drug oxycodone, which abusers seek for its heroin-like high. They crush the pills and then snort or inject them.
Abuse of OxyContin has sparked what some authorities call an epidemic in several Appalachian states over the past few years, and the associated addictions and crime have migrated to suburban and urban areas.
OxyContin is a long-lasting version of oxycodone, a narcotic considered important therapy for many patients suffering chronic, moderate to severe pain from illnesses such as cancer. The tablet, when swallowed whole, provides 12 hours of relief.
No Job Heroin Nod
But the drug can produce a quick and potentially lethal high if it is chewed, snorted or injected. It has been linked to more than 100 deaths and bears the government's strongest warning label, which says the drug may be as addictive as morphine.
PCP, the full name of which is phencyclidine, can produce hours of a frenzied high. The drug has unpredictable effects, and people under its influence have been known to behave erratically, from stripping off their clothing to killing with little or no provocation.
The drug PCP was popular in the District in the 1970s and '80s, when it was known as Love Boat or Buck Naked,
because many of its users shed their clothes while high. But the drug's popularity in Washington faded as crack cocaine took over.
Jay, Robbie and Chris rolling a Joint of Ugandian Bhangi
1973 on the roof of the Narobi Hilton in Kenya.
Chris got clean ten years later. Robbie and Jay are most likely dead or rotting in a jail somewhere.
For their children, smoking marijuana is not a harmless rite of passage but rather a dangerous game of Russian roulette.
the number of children and teenagers in treatment for marijuana dependence and abuse has jumped 142 percent since 1992,
and the number of teen emergency room admissions in which marijuana is implicated is up almost 50 percent since 1999.
Though alcohol remains by far the teen substance of choice, teens are three times likelier to be in treatment for marijuana than for alcohol
(and six times likelier to be in treatment for marijuana than for all other illegal drugs combined).
As has been true of tobacco since the 1960s, we've learned a lot about the dangers of marijuana since the 1970s.
The drug adversely affects short-term memory, the ability to concentrate and motor skills.
Recent studies indicate that it increases the likelihood of depression, schizophrenia and other serious mental health problems.
Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, has repeatedly expressed concern about the adverse impact of marijuana on the brain,
a matter of particular moment for youngsters whose brains are still in the development stage.
Volkow has stated: There is no question marijuana can be addictive; that argument is over.
The most important thing right now is to understand the vulnerability of young, developing brains to these increased concentrations of cannabis.
Psilocybin, the active ingredient of "magic mushrooms," expands the mind. After a thousand years of use, that's now scientifically official.
The chemical promoted a mystical experience in two-thirds of people who took it for the first time, according to a new study.
One-third rated a session with psilocybin as the "single most spiritually significant" experience of their lives. Another third put it in the top five.
It confirms what both shamans and hippies have long said -- taking psilocybin is a scary, reality-bending and occasionally life-changing experience.
Of the 36 people, 22 had a "complete" mystical experience as judged by several question-based scales used for rating such experiences.
Two-thirds judged it to be among their top five life experiences, equal to the birth of a first child or death of a parent.
Two months after a session, the people who had taken psilocybin reported small but significant positive changes in behavior and attitudes compared with those who had taken Ritalin.
There is no single known cause of alcoholism, but the researchers wrote that about two-thirds of alcohol dependence could be attributed to genetic factors and one-third to environmental causes like stress or emotional problems. Men and women are equally affected, and age does not appear to affect prognosis.
Crack users and heroin users are so disorganized and get in these frantic binges, they're not going to sit still and do anything in an organized way for very long,
Dr. Rawson said.
Meth users, on the other hand, that's all they have, is time.
The drug stimulates the part of the brain that perseverates on things. So you get people perseverating on things, and if you sit down at a computer terminal you can go for hours and hours.
For example, crack cocaine or heroin dealers usually set up in well-defined urban strips run by armed gangs,
which stimulates gun traffic and crimes that are suited to densely populated neighborhoods,
including mugging, prostitution, carjacking and robbery.
Because cocaine creates a rapid craving for more, addicts commit crimes that pay off instantly, even at high risk.
Methamphetamine, by contrast, can be manufactured in small laboratories that move about suburban or rural areas,
where addicts are more likely to steal mail from unlocked boxes.
Small manufacturers, in turn, use stolen identities to buy ingredients or pay rent without arousing suspicion.
And because the drug has a long high, addicts have patience and energy for crimes that take several steps to pay off.
The overdoses took place in Minnesota, Texas and Florida and were blamed on 1,4-butanediol, which turns to GHB in the body.
Butanediol is used as an industrial solvent and is also included in supplements sold under names such as Thunder Nectar, InnerG and Zen.
Butanediol can cause dizziness, seizures and coma, and can slow breathing to dangerous levels. It can intensify alcohol's effects and is also said to be more dangerous when taken with other depressant drugs.
GHB, or gamma hydroxybutyrate, is sometimes used at all-night rave parties. It is known as a date rape drug for its ability to incapacitate people and leave them vulnerable to sexual assault.
Alcoholism is divided into 2 categories: dependence and abuse. People who are dependent on alcohol spend a great deal of time drinking alcohol, and getting it.
Physical dependence involves:
The most severe drinking behavior includes long drinking binges that lead to mental or physical problems. Some people are able to gain control over their dependence in earlier phases before they totally lose control. But no one knows which heavy drinkers will be able to regain control and which will not.
There is no known common cause of alcoholism. However, several factors may play a role in its development. A person who has an alcoholic parent is more likely to become an alcoholic than a person without alcoholism in the immediate family.
Research suggests that certain genes may increase the risk of alcoholism, but which genes or how they work is not known.
Psychological factors may include:
Social factors include:
The incidence of alcohol intake and related problems is rising. Data indicate that about 15% of people in the United States are problem drinkers, and about 5% to 10% of male drinkers and 3% to 5% of female drinkers could be diagnosed as alcohol dependent.
Alcohol affects the central nervous system as a depressant. This leads to a decrease in:
Even a few drinks can change behavior, slow motor skills, and decrease the ability to think clearly. Alcohol can impair concentration and judgment. Drinking a lot of alcohol can cause drunkenness (intoxication).
Some of the symptoms of alcoholism include:
(One drink is defined as a 12-ounce bottle of beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, or a 1 1/2-ounce shot of liquor.)
All doctors should ask their patients about their drinking. The health care provider can get a history from the family if the affected person is unwilling or unable to answer questions. A physical examination is done to identify physical problems related to alcohol use.
The following questions are used by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to screen for alcohol abuse or dependence:
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause severe birth defects. The most serious is fetal alcohol syndrome, which may lead to mental retardation and behavior problems. A milder form of the condition that can still cause lifelong problems is called fetal alcohol affects.
People who are dependent on or who abuse alcohol continue to drink it despite physical or mental problems. They may have problems with binge drinking (drinking 6 or more drinks at one sitting). Those with dependence have more severe problems and a greater need to drink.
Alcoholism is a major social, economic, and public health problem. Alcohol is involved in more than half of all accidental deaths and almost half of all traffic deaths. A high percentage of suicides involve the use of alcohol along with other substances.
People who abuse or are dependent on alcohol are more likely to be unemployed, involved in domestic violence, and have problems with the law (such as drinking and driving).
Methamphetamine -- a powerful stimulant that impairs the central nervous system -- is the latest drug scourge to capture the nation's attention.
Known as the poor man's cocaine because of its cheap price and lengthy high, meth has long been a drug of choice among low-income addicts. But what used be an isolated problem in pockets of the West and in rural areas has become a top priority for law enforcement officials across the Southwest and Midwest, where meth production and use has moved from biker gangs to mainstream.
According to a 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health report, 12.4 million Americans ages 12 and older had tried methamphetamine at least once, with most users between 18 and 34. Last year, more than 3,000 children were rescued during seizures of more than 15,000 meth labs nationwide, according to the federal Office of National Drug Control Policy.
Teenagers intentionally inhale the vapors of common household products such as hair spray, shoe polish and glue each year.
The health effects can include brain and neural damage, convulsions, deafness, impaired vision, depressed motor skills and death. The social effects, surveys show, include behavioral problems, other drug use and delinquent behavior.
Inhalants commonly sniffed, or "huffed," by children as young as 8 include gasoline and lighter fluid, spray paints, cleaning fluids, paint thinners and other solvents, degreasers, correction fluids, hair sprays and odorizers.
Slang term for a way of smoking heroin, which usually involves placing
powdered heroin on foil and heating it from below with a lighter.
The heroin turns to a sticky liquid and wriggles around like a Chinese dragon, hence the name. Fumes are given off and are inhaled, sometimes thorough a rolled up newspaper, magazine or tube.
Tonight when I chase the dragon / The water will change to cherry wine / And the silver will turn to gold - Time Out Of Mind
a pain and addiction specialist in Fairfax, Va., told me: If we take the fact that 10 percent of the population has the disease of addiction, and if we say that pain is the most common presentation to a doctor's office, please tell me why the interface of pain and addiction is not part of the core curriculum of health care training in the United States? Will Rowe, the executive director of the American Pain Foundation, notes that pain education is still barely on the radar in most medical schools.
Addiction Treatment Forum
There is no test for schizophrenia,
and doctors make a diagnosis based on symptoms.
Here is a list of some of the early warning signs of schizophrenia
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